Hello Friends Welcome to a new video on Yog and Ayurved The present video is part of a lecture series created for the advanced Yog Teacher Training Module, MarrmaYog a unique project by the National Library of Ayurved Medicine. My Name is Dr Sumit Kesarkar and I will be your host throughout this video which presents an Introduction to Yog and makes an attempt to trace its origins and susbequent history The word YOG is derived from the Sanskrit root or DHATU, “YUJ” which means to “join” or “union” The word Yog hence used in any context defines “Unity” or “Oneness”. of the prime fundamentals of that context leading to it’s final goal. For example in Ayurved Medicine a compound formulations is known as YOG which indicates the perfect union of its ingredients which may give the expected therapeutic result in an ailment it is designed for. In the same context the term RAAJ YOG as expounded by Patanajali indicates the final goal of complete merger or union of Individual Consciousness with Supreme Consciousness based on its core fundamentals. To understand further let us take an example of another form of Yog known as Hath-Yog whose fundamental practises find their source in Tantra. TANTRA is derived from 2 Sanskrit Dhatu’s Tanoti and Trayati which mean Expansion and Liberation respectively. Hence Yog in conjunction with HATH denotes its final goal at expanding consciousness towards liberating Creative Energy which it terms as Maya, Prakriti or Shakti and finally merging it with the inert consciousness of Shiv or Purusha through various methods of Hath In the same vein, the goals of other forms of Yog like BHAKTI Yog LAYA YOG MANTRA YOG and KUNDALINI Yog can be understood. It is highly inappropriate or extremely difficult to arrive at a specific time period for the exact ORIGIN of YOG since Yog is such a multifaceted practise deep rooted in very essence of probably an advanced civilisation from the Indian subcontinent With available Archeological data we can speculatively but quite clearly say it was developed more than 1000 years ago Statues and Seals of Shiv and Parvati performing various Asan and Meditation Have been found in the Archeological excavations made in the INDUS VALLEY at Harrapa and Mohenjodaro The Indus Valley Civilisation is dated as back as 3300 BCE The Seal of Pashupat found in Indus Valley excavations is the earliest depiction of Yog which shows a humanoid figure attributed to Lord Shiv seated in a meditative yogic pose Lord Shiv is hence considered the creator of Yog and is known as AdiGuru or First Teacher we can try and ascertain a time frame to Yog by it’s earliest documentations. It must though be kept in mind that before the advent of codified systems in India the knowledge was passedin form of Oral Traditions from teachers to students and hence the practise of yog may have predated any treatise which we may attempt to put a codified time period by many years or even centuries. hence further through this video the use of word codified attempts to puta time frame to the physical version of the treatise According to the accepted and available data of research in Indology and certainly not to the first oral transmission of it’s knowledge references to Yog can be earliest found in the Ved’s which many scholars believe were codified when the Indus Valley culture was flourishing around 1300 -1500 BCE the Ved’S do not mention the practiseof Yog but allude to it Symbolically VEDIC knowledge is considered a Shruti which means knowledge revealed by Seers or Rishi’s who attained them in states of deep meditation this deep meditative state can be attributed to the yogic state of Samadhi and hence the existence of Ved’s is testimony to the prevalence of flourishing Yog practises at that time However it is the Upanishad’s where Yog began to take it’s individual shape Let us try and trace the origins of Yog in an interactive timeline on basis of Yog literature of prime substance KATHA Upanishad Codified date unknown but scholars place it around 600 BCE Katha Upanishad details the story of an young brahmin Nachiket who is granted 3 wishes by Yam the lord of death His last wish is to know about life after death in response to which Yam teaches him the fundamentalsof Yog and immortality of Jiva or soul SHVETASHVATRA Upanishad Codified date unknown but scholars place it around 400 BCE Fundamentals of Yog like Meditation, control through posture and Samadhi are described MAITRAYANIYA Upanishad codified around 300 BCE, it formalizes the sixfold form of yog Over a period of time dedicated Upanishads to Yog known as YOG Upanishad a corpus of about 22 texts orientated to Vedanta philosophy were established which by the 18 century reached their final compilation comprising some rewritings of older texts and several newly composed texts. These texts elaborated several forms of YOG MANTRA YOG LAYA YOG HATHA YOG and RAAJ YOG Mahabharat, the Moskhadharma book 12, part 2 discuss in length various systems of yog Though codified status of Mahabharat is unknown scholars presume the Mokshadharma to have been codified around the early parts of 4BCE Yog-Sutra Codified 1 BCE – 4TH CE Though the sutras are attributed to Patanajali scholars of Indology believe that the original text may have been revised over time by many author’s till it’s present form it shows a dominative influence of Sankhya Philosophy It comprises of 4 chapters with 195 aphorisms which describe fundamentals of Yog philosophy with introduction to Ashtang Yog or 8 limbed Yog YAM or proper behavior NIYAM or proper attitude ASAN or posture PRANAYAM or control of breath or cosmic energy PRATYAHAR or withdrawal of senses DHARAN or concentration DHAYN or meditation and SAMADHI or final absorption or dissolution Yog Sutra shows shades of Mahayan Buddhism and also supposed to be at the core fundamentals of Jainism YOG YAJNAVALKYA codified around 2BCE -4CE contains 12 chapters 504 verses expounds Patanajali’s 8 limbed Yog or Ashtang Yog Main features are extensive discussion of various Pranayam through 100 Verses Applications of Yog to Ayurved Simplified logical explanation of Kundalini All done through a dialogue between sage Yajnavalkya and his philosopher wife Gargi the treatise is first of it’s kind which makes Yog universally applicable to both men and women The concepts of Yog Yajnavalkya are heavily borrowed in further texts like Hath Yog Pradipika and certain Yog Upanishads Somewhere around 1st century , the system of Hath Yog, began to take firm roots Hath yog incorporates physical exercises as a major aspect of spiritual development However it no way confirms that Hatha-Yog was not practised before 1st Century. In the RIG Ved, a text supposed to be codified more than 4,000 years ago several Hatha-Yog concepts like Granthi, Asan and 5 forms of Vayu are mentioned through interpretive symbolism In the Bhagavad Gita, the main Hath Yog practices are mentioned TIRUMANTHIRAM codified arnd 7TH CENT can be considered as the first premier book on Hath-Yog written in TAMIL by SAINT THIRUMULAR it contains lengthy poetic verses describing Tantric Kundalini Yoga expounding Shaivism philosphy of south-India The hath period gained maximum impetus from works of 2 legendary Nath sages Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath who lived around the 9th and 10th century respectively Gorakshanath was the student of Matsyendranath, Matsendryanath heard the teachings of Hath yog from the very lips of Lord Shiv who is considered the creator of Hath-Yog and known as ADINATH, the first Guru of the Nath tradition. Matsendriyanath in-spite of his vast knowledge arguable never codified a treatise His student Gorakshnath authored around 32 books on topics ranging from Philosophy, Cosmology and Yog of which only few survived the centuries Gorakshanath is considered as the premier saint to have propagated the Nath tradition in which the modern Hath Yog practises are rooted. we take a look at some of his prime defining works related to Yog Goraksha Samhita codifed around 10-11th century is also known as Goraksha Paddhathi. it describes the origin of the 84 classic asan, though it mentions and describes only two in detail the Siddhasan and the Padmasan. it gives a wonderful etymology of the term HATH by explaining that The Sun (‘ha’) and the Moon (‘tha’) exist in the body similarly to how they exist in the sky The Moon is thought to be at the root of the palate and the Sun inside the abdomen Many scholars consider the Goraksha Samhita to be the first book on Hath-Yog Goraksha Shatak codified around the 10-12CE it is in form of 100 verses out of 8 branches of Patanjali Ashtang Yog it discusses only 6 leaving out YAM and NIYAM it puts emphasis on the physical purity of the body through methods of cleansing known as SHATKARM as opposed to the personal and social disciplines of Yam and Niyam as mentioned by Patanjali Apart from Goraksh Samhita , SIDDH SIDDHANT PADDHATI and YOGAMARTAND Authored by Gorakshnath are considered canons of Nath tradition and Hath Yog practises Shaaradatilak tantra codified around 10-11 CE Authored by Laxman Deshikendra in 25 chapters which equate to 25 principles of Sankhya. it gives brief overview of Cosmology, Mantra and Yantra depicting Tantra worship. Chapter 25 is dedicated to YOG with description of Nadi’s, Kundalini and Chakra the number of Chakra are said to be arguable as opposed to the definitive 6 Chakra’s known in Hath yog pradipika Yogashastra codified around 11-13TH century Authored by Dattatreya it teaches Ashtang Yog which it attributes to Yajnavalkya. it described 10 Hath-Yog practices undertaken by sage Kapil and other definitive practises which in times came to be known as Mudra or Seals in Hath-Yog Hath Yog Pradipika codified around 15-17TH century the book authored by Swatarma Yogin is like a manual on which practises of Modern Hath Yog is based Comprising of 4 chapters and 389 couplets it integrates physical disciplines with higher spiritual goals and practises it mentions of Laya-Yog and meditation it describes 15 Asan’s Hath Yog Pradipika, enlists a family tree of 33 greatest Hatha Yogis or Siddha’s At the top is “Adinath”, or “First Master”, another name for Lord SHIV After that comes Mastyendranath then Gorakshanath followed by a whole lineup of great teachers that succeeded him From this point on, many texts specifically devoted to Hath Yog became more common we look at some of the defining works as we move towards the current timeline Shiv Samhita Probably codified around 11-15TH century it expounds Yog teachings yet calls itself Tantra and describes complex physiology it mentions 84 ASAN but only 4 of them described in detail it describes 5 types of PRANA and provides techniques to regulate them along with MUDRAS and various practises of meditation it mainly emphasises that even a common householder can practise Yog and benefit from it and hence for the first time brings about Yog as a practise of commons Many scholars consider Shiv Samhita to be codified in early 11 century predating Hath yog pradipika while others place it as late as 17-18TH century. Gherand Samhita codified around 17-18TH Century Authored by Sage Gherand, it builds on Hatha Yog Pradipika and describes 32 ASAN, different Pranayam techniques Mudra, Bandha and Shatkarm inclusive of 13 types of Dhauti’s It is one of the unique text to describe Yogic Diet in length One can find slight influences of Vaishnav philosophy through this treatise for the first time in Yog literature Hath Ratnavali codified around 18TH century Authored by Shrinivas the South-Indian text expounds on fundamentals of Hath yog Pradipika for the first time 108 Asan’s are listed but they are not very well described Sritattvanidhi codified 18TH -19TH century compiled by Krishnaraja Wodeyar 3, Maharaj of Mysore it serves as a compendium of Yog, Indian Wrestling exercises and some British Gymnastic practises it enlist 122 ASAN all of which were adopted by the revered Yog teacher T Krishnamacharya for his teachings at the Mysore Palace in early 20TH century these teachings forms the base of the current ASHTANGA-VINYASA practise so popular in modern times Summarising Modern-Yog most systems prevalent today can be traced back to 4 or 5 prominent Yog teachers from the early part of 20TH century T.Krishnamacharya T.Krishnamacharya developed the ASHTANGA YOG on the foundations of compendium Sritattvanidhi ASHTANGA YOG combines ASAN’S with FLOW of BREATH and DRISHTI or focus. POWER-YOG and VINYAS-YOG are derivative of Krishnamacharya’s Ashtanga-Yoga. this Yog also known as MYSORE STYLE YOG is different from ASHTANG-YOG of PATANAJALI on grounds of practise Krishnamacharya’s work was propogated in and out of India by his distinguished students K. Pattabhi Jois B.K.S.Iyengar Indra Devi Srivatsa Ramaswami and TKV Desikachar in their own Individual ways SWAMI SIVANANDA SARASWATI a physician from South-India who served in British army and settled in Rishikesh Swami Sivananda found the SIVANADA YOGA based on principles of Hath-Yog unlike the Ashtanga Viniyasa Yoga of Mysore which focusses on athletic physical exercises through ASAN’S and BANDHA Sivananda Yoga focussed on Health Benefits of practitioner and is a more relaxed form of Hath Yog His lineage was further expounded through his illustrious disciples Swami Vishnudevananda Saraswati founder of the Sivananda Yog Vedanta Centre Swami Satyananda Saraswati, founder of Bihar School of Yog Swami Satchidananda and many others There were many prominent masters who influenced Yog out of India and contributed to overall global awareness of Yog in past 100 years Swami Kuvalayananda was one of the premier persons to investigate Yog through modern scientific methods. He founded the Kaivalyadham Health and Yog Research Center in 1924 which promoted the cause Paramahansa Yogananda introduced Kriya Yog to the west Kriya yog is an anciemt system revived by the legendary Mahavtar Babaji and passed down through traditions to Lahiri Mahasya Yukteshwar Giri, the guru of Swami Yogananda Maharishi Mahesh Yogi who started the Transcendental Meditation or the TM-Sidhi programme Sri Sri Ravi Shankar who introduced the Sudarshan Kriya a “breathing-based technique” that is a core component of his Art of Living courses and finally Swami Ramdev who brought Yog awareness in grasp of common masses through his programs The list would also be incomplete without the mention of masters who were not specifically teaching Hath Yog but helped in spread of it’s Philosophy and Practises Ramkrishna Parmahansa and his student Swami Vivekananda Sri Aurbindo Ghosh Ramana Maharshi Swami Kripalvananda Baba Hari Dass Mahrishi Kartikeya Swami Rama was the first Indian yogi to be studied by west for his ability to voluntarily control bodily processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and body temperature Yogi Bhajan who introduced Kundalini-Yoga to the west and finally Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh or Osho Based on principles Hath Yog, Yog in modern world has evolved into various individualised styles like Hot-Yoga, Power-Yoga, Kunadlini-Yoga, Ashtang Viniyas Yoga, Iyender Yoga and many other forms, individualised by different Masters and Schools. Though Modern Yog is mostly about numerous Asan’s it is interesting to note that the prime canons of Yog mention only limited number of Asana which are mostly basic seated positions Let us take a look at the Evolution of Asan Patanjal Yog Sutra no Asan are described Goraksh Samhita or the Goraksh Paddhati mentions 84 but describes only 2 the Siddhasan and the Padmasan Hath-Yog-Pradipika Mentions and describes 15 ASAN Shiv Samhita Mentions 4 Asana’s the Siddhasana, Padmasana, Ugrasana and Svastikasana which are all simple seated positions the Gherand Samhita mentions 84 Asan’s as all the previous text but is the first one to describe 32 Asan’s Hatha Ratnavali is one of the first texts to attempt a listing of all the 84 Asan’s and describe them Swami Vishnu-devananda In 1959 first published a compilation of 66 basic postures and 136 variations of those postures Sri Dharma Mittra In 1975, compiled a list of 1300 variations of Asan’s derived from contemporary Gurus, Yogi’s, and ancient and modern texts This work is considered one of the primary references for asanas in the field of Yog today. His work is often mentioned in contemporary references for Iyengar Yoga, Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, Sivananda Yoga History of Yog can be roughly divided into 3 categories in view of it’s practises and final goal Classical Yog Prevalent around 100 BC – 500 CE Based on Sankhya Philosophy and Cosmology it emphasises on meditation in progressive states of Self Control to attain the transcendent purified ultimate state of Self, the Purusha the Upanishad’s, the Bhagvad Gita and Patanajal Yog Sutras are the foundations of this Classical-Yog Also known as Raaj-Yog it aims to make the body, Calm, Steady and Stable without any rigourous Asan and further through Concentration and Meditation devoid’s the mind of Sensory Perception which enables one to enter into a state of Samadhi where the physical world ceases to exist or the illusion of the world vanishes. it is thus World Rejecting it is propagated in Gurukul style with student to teacher transmission Hatha-Yog came into prominence from 500 BC – 1300 CE Though it is believed to be the most ancient form of Yog it emphasises on purification of body through various Yogic processes known as SHATKARM Netī, Dhautī, Naulī, Basti, Kapālabhātī and Trāṭaka as opposed to Raaj Yog methods of self control of Social Vices Hath further emphasises on bodily transcendence through sophisticated Asan and breath control it tends to gain Voluntary control of Autonomous functions of the body by achieving control over mind and Psychic energy through Bandha, Mudra and Chakra thus imparting oneE with super natural powers or Siddhi it aims at understanding and reaching the exclusive state of inert consciousness as equated to Lord Shiv and controlling the creative force of Kundalini equated to Shakti and then finally achieving state of highest transcendence by uniting the inert consciousness or Shiv with the creative force of Kundalini or Shakti it this follows Tantra philosophy it details the results of each practise and gives a logical and definitive view of states of transcendence like Samadhi as opposed to philosophy of Raaj yog which is World Rejecting Hath-Yog practises are World Affirming and tend to merge with the primordial source of creation to be free. Hath-Yog is transmitted in Guru-Student lineage with different sects of tantra and similar traditions Modern Yog, 19th century to the present. Most methods of Modern-Yog are improvised form of Hath-Yog to serve worldly goals of Physical fitness and Flexibility which are achieved through sophisticated and individualised techniques as opposed to Hath-Yog’s perfect postures to control the Autonomic Nervous System the main emphasis is on beautiful body structures and Bio-Medico-Media oriented goals aligning Modern-Yog practice with modern scientific and medical explanation the Modern-Yog principles are neither the Unconscious Mind Model of Hath-Yog nor the Dead Sensory Perceptions of Raaj-Yog but expounds new zones of Secular Spirituality there is no emphasis on Psychic Control of the body or the conecpt of Samadhi as mentioned by Patanjali but more towards a happy health society and economic empowerment it is hence very much oriented towards this world Yoga is taught through Yog schools which are organised as large scale ashrams or small to medium private Yoga studios I hope this video was informative and made the subjet clear. Comments and feedback are highly appreciated and you can send them by writing to me at For more information on Marmayog please visit or the parent website for Ayurveda and Yog at thank you for watching